العقل والنقل ..أيهما المقدم؟

صورة رائد السمهوري

نالت جدلية العقل والنقل بين التقديم والتأخير نصيبًا وافرًا من النقاش الكلامي والأصولي في التراث الإسلامي، ولا يزال ينال ذيّاك النصيب حتى هذه اللحظة.

وهذه المقالة التي أخطها الآن هي قطرة في بحر هذا الجدال، فما يزال أصحاب العقول يعيدون ويزيدون في هذه المسألة، ودعوني أقرر في مقالتي هذه أني أنحاز كل الانحياز إلى الخطاب الذي يقول بتقديم العقل على النقل مطلقًا والخطاب الذي يقرر أن العقل أصل النقل كما يقوله السادة من علماء الكلام المسلمين.

ودعوني أقرر أن تقديم العقل على النقل ضرورة عقلية جاحدها ومنكرها والمجادل فيها يمارس السفسطة بامتياز، بل إنه ينقض القرآن والسنة كليهما بل إنه بهذا يسد باب التدليل على وجود الصانع تعالى ـ وسيأتي بيان هذا ـ وهو فوق هذا وذاك يتناقض كل التناقض ويمارس ألعوبة فكرية تؤدي إلى أن يقدّس هو فهمه باسم الدين، ويماهي بين فهمه والنص بحيث أن من خالف فهمه فقد خالف النص الديني، وهاهنا نستطيع أن نتأمل نتائج هذا التماهي من العنف القولي واللفظي على السواء تمامًا كما فعل الخوارج حين قالوا لعلي بن أبي طالب: "لا حكم إلا لله"، فقال بفطنته وذكائه وبصيرته الوقادة: "كلمة حق أريد بها باطل، فإن القرآن لا ينطق ولكن ينطق به الرجال" إي أن النصوص يفهمها الرجال ويطبقونها، وهكذا فيكون شعار الخوارج شعارًا كاذبًا مموهًا فمنطوقهم فيه: لا حكم إلا لله، لا حكم إلا للشريعة لا حكم إلا للنقل، ولكن المسكوت عنه: لا حكم إلا لعقولنا نحن، لا حكم إلا لفهومنا لا حكم إلا لآرائنا!

كل من يزعم أن النقل مقدم على العقل بإطلاق، فهو يمارس أغلوطة الخوارج نفسها، ذاك أن النقل مهما يكن من أمر ليس بمعزل عن الفهم لا في ثبوته بادئ ذي بدء، ولا في فهمه لا في قطعيه ولا في ظنيه، وإذن فمن يزعم أنه يقدم النقل على العقل، هو على التحقيق والتدقيق والحتم يقدّم عقله هو على عقل خصومه، ولكنه يماهي بين عقله والنقل فيزعم أنه يقدم النقل يحتمي بهذه اللفظة ويجعلها حصان طروادة يدس فيها فهمه مغلفًا بالتقديس على أساس أن فهمه للنص الإلهي هو ذاته النص الإلهي، وبمجرد أن تخالفه في الفهم يصرخ في وجهك: أنت تقدم عقلك على النص، ولكن حقيقة كلامه ـ سواء أكان يعيها أو لا يعيها ـ: أنت تقدم عقلك على عقلي المقدس (الذي يسميه هنا النقل)!

إن العقل مقدم على النقل مطلقًا! هذه ضرورة لا أدري كيف يجحدها الجاحد؟ وتقديم العقل على النقل ليس تقديم تفضيل! بل تقديم ترتيب؛ لأن التفضيل لا محل له هنا؛ فالنص القرآني قائم ومؤسس على العقل وليس هو مؤسِّسًا للعقل، فاللغة عقل منطوق، إنها بيان للأفكار، وهذا هو النص القرآني، إنه لغة "بشرية" بألفاظ يعقل العرب معانيها قبل ورود النص القرآني، وهي تعبر عن معقولات يفهمها المتلقي ويدرك اتساقها أو تناقضها، ويستطيع أن يحكم عليها، ولهذا تحدى القرآن تحديًا واضحًا حين قال:{ولو كان من عند غير الله لوجدوا فيه اختلافًا كثيرًا}.

هذا دليل واضح على أن البشر يحكمون عقولهم في النص، وأنهم يستطيعون الحكم عليه وأنهم قادرون على التمييز بين ما إذا كان فيه خلل أو لا، وبمجرد أن يكتشفوا أنه لا خلل فيه فسيعلمون أنه من عند الله مع هذا الإعجاز وتلك الدقة التي تستهلك الأذهان الذكية لإدراك أسرارها.

بمعنى أن كل إنسان يدلف إلى رحاب هذا النص فيحاكمه بعقله فيكتشف أنه ليس فيه ما يخالف ضرورات العقول، إذا فهمه على ضوء اللغة العربية وأساليبها واتساعها على طريقة الذين أنزل فيهم القرآن، فيكون أحد الأدلة على أنه من عند الله هو خلوه من التناقض والعيب، وهكذا فكونه من عند الله هو نتيجة لا مقدمة! إي أن إثبات كونه من عند الله مبني على إعمال العقل فيه ثم اكتشاف خلوه من الخلل!

وبهذه الصورة يكون العقل حاكمًا على النص! حاكمًا عليه يقرر أنه من عند الله.

إن الله تعالى يقول:{إن الله يأمر بالعدل والإحسان وإيتاء ذي القربي وينهى عن الفحشاء والمنكر والبغي} ..

ماذا لو كانت هذه الآية على هذا النحو:{إن الله ينهى عن العدل والإحسان وإيتاء ذي القربى، ويأمر بالفحشاء والمنكر والبغي ..}.

هل سيتردد العاقل في أن يحكم أنه حينئذ كلام شيطاني لا رحماني؟!

وأنه حديث مفترى؟ وأن يستحيل أن يصدر من الله تعالى؟!

لكن أنى له أن يحكم أنه ليس من الله تعالى؟! أليس هذا مبنيًا على علمه بالله قبل النص، لأنه سيقرؤه وهو يعلم ما يليق بالله أو ما لا يليق؟ فيعلم أن الله يستحيل أن يأمر بالفحشاء والمنكر؟ ويستحيل أن يأمر بالظلم؟

وإذن فأنى له أن يعلم القائل قبل أن يعلم القول؟! وعلى أساس علمه بالقائل يحكم على القول أيليق بالقائل أم لا يليق؟!

لا سبيل إلى هذا إلا العقل! العقل هو دليلنا على وجودنا (فعلمنا بوجودنا هو حالة عقلية)، وهو دليلنا على وجود الأشياء (وعلمنا بهذا هو حالة عقلية)، وهو دليلنا على وجود محدِث هذه الأشياء (وعلمنا بهذا أيضًا هو حالة عقلية).

العقل أول الأدلة .. أولها ترتيبًا لا تفضيلاً، وفي المقالات القادمة، مزيد تفصيل في هذه القضية المهمة.

ملف النهضة: 

التعليقات

صورة teresa39m4

Custom software program solutions development company.

my webpage ... ecommerce jobs los angeles (Bella)

صورة vilmag9358

Ꮮߋᴠе Casino?

Ꮃe Ԁο.

Ⲥlick һere:

Ƭօ сⅼаіm y᧐սr sіgnup-bօnus аnd free-ѕрins оn ʏоur fɑvⲟritе ѕⅼ᧐t-mɑchіnes.

My page - Leap Forward

صورة karollacke

There are more than 30 financial institutions and lending institutions participating in this
method as well We're actually glad to have the personal loans to
pay off because I have the ability to pay

Here is my web page; kill

صورة arletteman

It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it's time to be happy.
I have read this post and if I could I desire to
suggest you few interesting things or suggestions.
Maybe you could write next articles referring to this article.
I want to read more things about it!

Also visit my site - Nexuspharmacy

صورة stancage67

An intriguing discussion is definitely worth comment. I believe that
you should write more about this subject, it may not be a taboo matter but typically people do not speak about
these issues. To the next! Kind regards!!

my web blog :: result togel

صورة devinaston

Thank you for every other informative website.
Where else could I get that kind of information written in such an ideal method?
I have a project that I'm just now operating on, and I've been on the
look out for such info.

my webpage Dervina Advanced Eye Treatment anti-aging cream

صورة mikewynkoo

I was recommended this website by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post
is written by him as nobody else know such detailed
about my difficulty. You're wonderful! Thanks!

My web-site - 5X Trim 600 weight loss

صورة hai77k8638

Thank you, I have recently been searching for info about this
subject for a while and yours is the greatest I've came upon so far.
But, what about the conclusion? Are you certain concerning the supply?

Look at my web blog - auto accident lawyer

صورة genesisneu

It is actually a great and useful piece of information. I'm happy that you shared this helpful
information with us. Please stay us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.

Also visit my web site: Regene Life youthful eye Serum

صورة phoebeedwi

The first holiday season is often the most
memorable, and you want to make sure that everyone looks their
best. Ask both children to help both you and daddy prepare tonight\'s meal.

Bare your shoulders, collarbone, cleavage and derriere at the beach but
not in the boardroom. You can look great at any occasion by just wearing something that is
simple and comfortable. You would be surprised at the
good buys you can get there. Great for parties, events and dinner,
this trend has been seen all over the hottest designers.
Also, your 6 slice oven doesn't heat up the kitchen like a regular oven does.

Also visit my site - rehearsal dinner dress anthropologie sale

صورة angeloelmo

One more and many important selling point of using natural treatments is that generally they are clear of any type of negative effects Call in front to find out what you must
avoid having to make two visits

My web blog :: christine

صورة randyarndt

Often industry experts suggest finding help of a lawyer who is
connected with a giant lawyer as they are more capable
and expert enough to take care of your objectives With
regards to these types of lending products, you should know
potentially they are very much easy to contract and
you will then not need so many documents to acquire your hands on the
funds

Feel free to visit my page: jordan

صورة mirtakeele

I'll right away grab your rss feed as I can't to find your e-mail
subscription link or newsletter service. Do you've
any? Kindly let me recognize in order that I may subscribe.
Thanks.

Review my web-site ... John

صورة hoseaopp6

I just could not go away your website prior to suggesting
that I extremely loved the usual information an individual provide on your
guests? Is going to be again frequently in order to investigate cross-check new
posts

Here is my web site ... Kristen

صورة monroewhit

Hey would you mіnd shаring which blog platform you're using?
I'm planning to start my oown blog in the near futfure but I'm having
a hawrd time chooѕijng between BlօgEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
The reɑsߋn I ask is because your design seems different then most blogs and I'm
looking for something completely unique.
P.S Apologies for bsing off-topіc but I haԀ to ask!

my web-sitе :: شركات نظافة المنازل بالرياض

صورة juliennedo

My relatives every time say that I am wasting my time here at net, but I know I am getting know-how everyday by reading such good posts.

My website: 1940 vintage dresses

صورة jeffereywi

Are you currently amongst people who are unsure about
the possibility of hacking Facebook password.

Also visit my page: gratuit sans code sans logiciel

صورة chandrafer

I do not even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good.
I do not know who you are but certainly you are going to a famous blogger if you are not
already ;) Cheers!

My site: testomaster funciona

صورة fuwstuart

This paragraph will help the internet viewers for setting up new web site or even a weblog from start to end.

Feel free to visit my page - Widzew

صورة stewartmcg

It's rеmагҝablᥱ tо νіsіt tɦіѕ wеЬ ѕitе аnd
reaɗing tɦе ѵiеաеѕ оff aⅼⅼ
fгiеndѕ аƅⲟᥙt tҺiѕ pіеce օf ԝгіtіng, ԝҺіⅼᥱ
Ⅰ am ɑⅼsօ ҝееn оf
ցеttіng ехрeгіеncе.

My wеƄ sіtе -

صورة naomi02t23

Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your site and in accession capital
to claim that I acquire in fact enjoyed account your blog posts.
Any way I'll be subscribing on your feeds and even I achievement you get
right of entry to consistently fast.

Here is my weblog Alpha FX testosterone enhancement supplement

صورة napoleonbu

Hello just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The words in your article seem
to be running off the screen in Firefox. I'm not sure if this is a
format issue or something to do with web browser compatibility but I thought I'd post to let you know.

The style and design look great though! Hope you get
the problem solved soon. Cheers

Also visit my web-site; John

صورة gerardobat

fantastic issues altogether, you just gained a emblem new reader.
What would you suggest in regards to your put up that you made a few days
in the past? Any positive?

Also visit my blog post shop online (www.zriiproz.com)

صورة felica34k4

Can I simply say what a relief to discover a person that genuinely knows what
they're discussing online. You certainly understand
how to bring a problem to light and make it important.
More people really need to read this and understand this side of your story.
I can't believe you're not more popular because you surely have the gift.

my blog post; astigmatism test

صورة tonyagreen

If you would like to improve your experience just keep visiting this site
and be updated with the most up-to-date news update posted here.

Feel free to visit my page admincms

صورة terencecal

Common involvement moments for branded cellular web games range from three to 10 units.

Also visit my page: how to Get game hacker

صورة antoniolis

Hi there, I would like to subscribe for this web site to
get most recent updates, therefore where can i do it please assist.

Visit my blog ... valvoline instant oil change competitors coupons (Anton)

صورة katricewjs

you're actually a just right webmaster. The site loading speed is incredible.
It sort of feels that you're doing any distinctive trick.

Furthermore, The contents are masterwork. you have performed a
excellent activity on this topic!

Also visit my site :: RaleighPLoux

صورة eltonkline

twoextended familyrevolting disgustingThisextended faamily five hundredtworevolting disgustingisrervolting disgustingtwo a really basic question extended familyrevolting disgustingthatnuclear familytwo
you must five hundrednucleaar familyanswerextended familytwofive hundred five hundredtwoextended familybeforefive
hundred twonuclear familyrevolting disgustingyourevolting disgustingextended familyfive
hundred twobe taughttwo five hundredextended familytoextended familytwofive hundred fiove hundredtwotrade revolting disgustingorrevolting disgustingextended familytwofive hundred invest nuclear familyrevolting disgustingyournuclear familyfive hundred
money and time twoextended familyintorevolting disgustingnuclear familytwo five hundredtworevolting
disgustingForexrevolting disgustingextended familytwofive hundred five hundrededucation.

My web site ... forex rates in pakistan

صورة tresaspear

Hello there! This is kind of off topic but I need
some help from an established blog. Is it very hard to set up your own blog?

I'm not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty
quick. I'm thinking about making my own but I'm not sure where to begin.
Do you have any points or suggestions? Cheers

Have a look at my page :: OtisBEmayo

صورة brookgribb

Hey there just wanted to provide a brief heads up. The text
with your content seem to be running off the
screen in Internet explorer. I'm unclear if this sounds
like a format issue or something to do with internet browser compatibility but I figured
I'd post to inform you. The style and design look fantastic
though! I do hope you get the issue fixed soon. Thanks

Feel free to visit my site MeldaYPrazma

صورة brent2862

Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide credit and
sources back to your blog? My blog is in the very
same niche as yours and my visitors would really benefit from some of
the information you provide here. Please
let me know if this alright with you. Many thanks!

Feel free to visit my blog post; pirater facebook

صورة zack768882

Hi there! This post could not be written any better!

Reading this post reminds me of my previous room mate!

He always kept talking about this. I will forward this post to him.

Pretty sure he will have a good read. Thank you for
sharing!

Also visit my web blog; florida payday loans (www.akbdmedia.com)

صورة thomasangl

I have been surfing online more than 4 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.
It is pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all website (Halley) owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the net will be much more
useful than ever before.

صورة winifred09

Actually, eBay itself is a world of home Business ideas for Introverts (www.ldyy8.com) based business ideas
ass a result of it presents various alternatives to individuals from a number of streams.

صورة kazukosly

It's perfect time to make some plans for the longer term and it's
time to be happy. I've read this submit and if I may I want to recommend you few fascinating things or
suggestions. Maybe you can write next articles relating to this article.
I desire to learn more things approximately it!

Feel free to surf to my web page; bocoran togel hari ini

صورة arnettezzs

I do not know whether it's just me or if all the others encountering problems with your site.

Seems like as though a number of the written text in your content
are running away from the screen. Can somebody else please
comment and tell me should this be happening in their mind too?
This could become a issue with my internet browser because I've had this happen previously.
Thanks a lot

my web-site TannaEDiffey

صورة cortezngo

My partner and I absolutely love your blog and find the
majority of your post's to be just what I'm looking for.
can you offer guest writers to write content in your case?

I wouldn't mind composing a post or elaborating on some of the subjects you write related to here.
Again, awesome weblog!

Feel free to surf to my blog post; Max Synapse brain capacity booster

صورة jacelynmie

The landing would be tiled as well as any walls that are exposed.
Therefore, finding home improvement catalogs that are worthwhile is often somethiing thyat you want to
think about before you begin to do your projects.
You will link the skylight and thee diffuser by inserting the tube or shaft.

my webpage افضل شركات مكافحة الحشرات بجدة

صورة ciarabisbe

Spend less For Pension ' Though it offers not any instant satisfaction whatsoever, spending less towards ones retirement is among the
smartest steps you can take financially Greater you will gain information regarding
this personal loan, the happier are the odds to tote the best deal.

My site - Kill

صورة benjaminte

It's really a cool and useful piece of information. I am happy that you shared this useful info
with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thank you for sharing.

Take a look at my web blog Cellvia anti-aging gel

صورة nadiaw210

This site was... how do you say it? Relevant!! Finally I've found something that helped me.
Thanks a lot!

Feel free to visit my web blog ... Nu Youth Anti-Wrinkle

صورة gudrungrun

Do you have a spam issue on this site; I also am a blogger, and I was wanting to know your situation; many
of us have created some nice methods and we are looking to
trade techniques with others, please shoot me an e-mail
if interested.

Feel free to surf to my web page :: Simple Anti Aging review

صورة winnief278

Need crucial updates please copy from Free Game Cheats not through only
and the desktop function chrome... Missing likewise hd
photos, gif pages, key conversation, media that is better function...
update!!

Here is my site: crack Any password free

صورة linda38291

That is a great tip particularly to those fresh to the
blogosphere. Simple but very accurate info… Thanks for sharing this one.
A must read post!

My web-site :: windows 7 activator daz

صورة tarahsimch

For Dewalt cordless drill some modsel has great selection such as money back in 90
days, 90 days free service. Walkways and patios can be paved with permeable concrete pavers.
Thhe best concept that is used in a lot of areas is to use LED lights at the reear of the bar shelf annd beneath the
counter.

My web site

صورة susanogles

twoextended familyFornuclear familyfive hundred instance, twoextended familyrevolting
disgustinganuclear familytwo twonuclear familyretailrevolting disgustingextended fakily foreign exchange dealer might
five hundredpurchase five hundredextende familyeurosnuclear familyfive hundred twonuclear familyrevolting disgustingforextended familytwofive hundred extended family1.tworevolting disgusting5475extended family nuclear familyrevolting disgustingUnuclear familytwo.extended familyrevolting
disgustingSrevolting disgustingtwofive hundred. five hundredtwoextended familyForexextended familytwofive hndred twonuclear familybrokersrevolting disgustingextended familytwo twoneedednuclear familytwofive
undred five hundredtwoextended familyrevolting disgustingifnuclear familytwofive hundred you're going to twotradetwo currencyfive hundred.

Here iss my web page; forex rates in uganda today

صورة calvinbidd

marvel contest Of champions hack Tournament Of Champions hack
cheats Cash and tool endless Gold immediately inside your browser.

صورة iwfcornell

Howdy, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one
and i was just wondering if you get a lot of
spam comments? If so how do you stop it, any plugin or
anything you can suggest? I get so much lately it's driving me
crazy so any assistance is very much appreciated.

Visit my web site ... Jane

صورة tiffany98i

I have been surfing online more than 2 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.
It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if all site
owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be a lot more useful
than ever before.

Feel free to visit my blog post ... kiersten

الصفحات