مقاربة في تعريف النهضة

صورة د.جاسم سلطان

كلمة النهضة شغلت الذهن العربي منذ مطلع القرن العشرين ولا زالت . ورغم المعنى المتبادر لغة وهو القيام من القعود، إلا أن السؤال حول المعنى لا يزال قائما، وخاصة حينما يحتدم الجدال والاخذ والرد عن مصاديق النهضة أو تحققها في أرض الواقع في هذا القطر أو ذاك ويزداد الامر تعقيدا عند استخدام مقاربات أخرى مثل البعث أو التقدم أو الترقي.

والقاعدة تقول " لا مشاحة في الاصطلاح " فعندما يعرف شخص ما النهضة بشكل من الأشكال فالنقاش يتم بناء على التعريف الذي يتم التوافق عليه حتى يمكن تحرير موضع النزاع والانطلاق للمفيد من القول ، بدل الدوران في حلقة مفرغة .

ولو مسحنا التعريفات المختلفة لوجدنا عدد من الأبعاد تحتويها التعريفات :

- أولها البعد الزماني: بتحديدها بالفترة الزمنية من القرن الرابع عشر الميلادي إلى منتصف القرن السابع عشر الميلادي . أو القول بأنها فترة وسيطة بين العصور الوسطى والعصور الحديثة .

- ثانيها البعد المكاني: بتحديد أوربا كمسرح لها أو التنصيص على ايطاليا .

- ثالثها البعد المجالي : باعتبارها ثورة ثقافية وخاصة في مجال الفنون والمعمار وهنا تظهر أسماء مثل ليوناردو ديفينشي ورافائيل ومايكل انجلو .وهنا أيضا قول بمركزية الانسان في فكر النهضة وظهور حركة الانسانيين ( على خلاف وضع الإله أو الطبيعة كمركز) واعتبارها صراع مع الموروثات الغيبية والجهل .

- رابعها البعد المجازي : بتصويرها بأنها الميلاد الجديد حيث حصلت تغيرات جذرية في الفنون والطب والعلوم والسياسة .

- خامسها بُعد التوجه للماضي الحضاري لأوربا عند اليونان والرومان واستدعاء تراثهما لكسر الحاجز الذي صنعته الكنيسة على العقل الاوروبي .

- سادسها بعد الاهتمامات : التركيز على الفردية والاستمتاع بالحياة والبحث والاكتشاف والتركيز على المناهج التجريبية .

- سابعها الحديث عن البعد التنموي حيث يقال أنها فترة نمو في الفنون والبحوث والأفكار.

ومن كل ذلك نستنتج بأن جوهر الموضوع المطروح وهو أن النهضة في الحالة الأوروبية هي عملية خروج من نسق فكري مقيد للعقل (مثلته الروح الكنسية بمستواها الثقافي والمادي المتحكم في الحياة الأوروبية ) إلى نسق آخر يسمح للعقل بالانطلاق ليقوم بوظيفته في الابداع وإعمار الحياة .

وأن جوهر الانطلاق كان من خلال الثقافة الاوربية ذاتها بتجاوز انغلاق فترة زمنية محددة وهي العصور الوسيطة وبالتالي تم التأسيس على قاعدة معرفية موجودة في المخيال الأوروبي وليست خارج انساقه المعرفية .فهي عملية تنشيط لمخزون موجود وتطويره ليصبح زادا لمرحلة قادمة بمعنى انها ليست عملية اجتثاث للتراث بل هي اعادة غربلة للتراث واستبقاء النافع منه وطرح الضار .

وبالتالي فالنهضة في جوهرها:

* هي عملية حياة فكرية جديدة تتجاوز انغلاق فترة زمنية سابقة وقيودها المعيقة .

* وهي مؤسسة على المراجعة والتقويم وليست مبنية على الاجتثاث والقطيعة .

* وهي عملية متصلة بالذات وليست عملية غريبة عنها .

*وهي مقدمة لإعمال العقل وليست نهايات عمله .

وتبقى أسئلة جوهرية متعلقة بمصاديق النهضة أو الواقع العاكس للنهضة : هل هو النمو الاقتصادي ؟ هل هو العمران والمدنية ؟ هل هو التعليم ؟ هل هو الحريات والديموقراطية ؟ هل هو المشاركة في البحث العلمي ؟ هل هو كل ذلك مجتمعا ؟ وهل تتحقق مجتمعه أم أن بعضها قد يوجد في غياب الآخرى ؟

للمقاربة مع هذه الأسئلة يلزم استدعاء تجسدات معاصرة للنهضة ، لم يكن طريقها طويلا( تراكميا ) كما هو الحال مع النهضة الأوروبية والتي هي انتجت الحضارة الأوروبية المعاصرة بأبعادها المختلفة في الاقتصاد والاجتماع والعمران والسياسة والتعليم والصحة ...إلخ . ويقفز إلى البال دول مثل الصين والهند وماليزيا وكوريا وايران وتركيا والتي اتخذت مسارا قصيرا (احتشاديا) حيث تجسدت حالة من الحراك الاجتماعي والسياسي تبلور في مشروع تنموي رعته الدولة وحشدت له الطاقات وبالتالي أصبحت تزاحم في دنيا الكبار بينما...

هناك دول أصغر مثل دبي وسنغفورة وآخرين يحاولون اللحاق بالركب في شكل تنمية مجتمعية وعمران هائل وسريع ومحاولات تنويع لوسائل الدخل... فكم يصدق على هذه التجارب  وصف النهضة ؟

إننا إذا استعرنا ما راكمناه من تعريف النهضة بمعنى ( الخروج من مرحلة زمنية معينة وضعت قيدا على العقل الإنساني بحيث قيدت إبداعه إلى مرحلة تنطلق فيها القدرات العقلية لتؤسس لواقع جديد ) وبالتالي قلنا بأن النهضة هي فعل المجتمع وليس الدولة بمعنى أن الوعي المجتمعي بوجوب التغيير خلق الواقع الخارجي في السياسة والاقتصاد والاجتماع ..إلخ لخاننا التوفيق في جميع هذه الحالات السابقة ففي أغلب- أقول أغلب - التجارب المذكورة كان هناك قيد بدرجة من الدرجات على عمل الفكر في مجال الإنسانيات تحديدا أي في السياسة والاقتصاد والاجتماع وبالتالي لا يمكن تعميم التعريف بصيغته السابقة باعتباره إجابة على سؤال النهضة .

ونظرة واحدة في كل التجارب السابقة ، سنجد تشابها معينا واختلافات جوهرية أيضا فمن حيث التشابه :

- نجد توفر الرؤية.

- نجد توفر القيادة الممسكة بزمام المبادرة .

- نجد استغلال للموارد وتنميتها ·

- نجد الظاهرة العمرانية ·

- نجد تطور متفاوت في الأنساق الاجتماعية ( نمو الاقتصاد – نمو العمران – نمو التعليم – نموالشكل الحداثي للمجتمع – نمو بطئ على المستوى السياسي – نمو ابطأ على مستوى الحرية الفكرية في مجال العلوم الانسانية المتماسة مع المجتمع ).

أما نواحي الاختلاف فتكمن في :

- درجة الاهتمام بتوطين المعرفة .

- درجة الحس بالهوية الذاتية والتميز .

- درجة الاهتمام بالعنصر المحلي .

- درجة الطموح في المنافسة الدولية .

- درجة الاهتمام بالأمن الاستراتيجي الذاتي والعلوم المتعلقة به .

فكيف حدثت التنمية التي نراها في ظل غياب الديموقراطيات وحرية التعبير في معظم هذه التجارب ؟ وهو أمر يقودنا لصياغة السؤال كالتالي هل الديموقراطية والحرية الفكرية بمعناها الشائع في الغرب اليوم شرط انطلاق للتنمية أم شرط ديمومة للتنمية ؟ التجربة التاريخية العالمية  في ألمانيا وفي روسيا وفي تجارب الوطن العربي من محمد على وجمال عبدالناصر والتجربة العراقية المعاصرة كلها شواهد على أن الديموقراطية الحقة والحريات الفكرية شرط ديمومة وليست شرط وجود ، بمعنى أن التنمية والمظهر الخارجي للنهضة قابل للتحقق في وجود الديكتاتوريات ربما بشكل أسرع من الديموقراطيات بينما تنهار التجربة و بنفس السرعة ما لم تستتبع التجربة بعناصر الرشد والنقد الذي توفره تعددية الرؤى في المجتمعات الحرة .

وعلى ذلك يمكن طرح مقاربة تعريفية جديدة مفادها أن النهضة (هي انبعاث همة متجددة في مجتمع ما لمواصلة التنافس الحضاري مع الأمم الآخرى مشفوعا بفكر جديد ورؤية متجددة  للعالم بحيث تتوافر فيها أي الفكرة موقومات الوجود ومقومات الديمومة ).

بمعنى أن تعريفنا الخاص لمّا نطلق عليه حالة النهضة هو وجود ركنين :

مقومات الانطلاق :

- الإحساس بالهوية الذاتية .

- الإرادة السياسية أو المجتمعية ( وليس الأماني).

- وجود المشروع القائد .

- القدرة على الاحتشاد حول المشروع .

توفر الرؤية لمعالجة قضية الديمومة بمعنى :

- توطين المعرفة · 

- وجود الحريات التي تسمح بالتصويب · 

- توفر رؤية لحماية المشروع استراتيجيا وبالتالي يمكن توفير أداة تقويم للمشاريع المطروحة في العالم ، ودرجة الواعدية فيها .

التعليقات

صورة Rhodes26

Fake Hublot Watches Fake Tag Heuer Watches I question it. Replica Rolex Watches for sale But each and every working day a huge number of people invest less than $50 on a Rolex observe Replica Rolex Watches. They"re purchasing Duplicate Rolex watches. Fake Tag Heuer Watches for Sale fake Cartier Watches And individuals are buying them for any number of motives, Fake Hublot Watches and not only to fool their friends or impress the manager.

صورة wendychauv

Touche. Sound arguments. Keep up the good spirit.

Also visit my website :: boobs tumblr

صورة zakcastill

Great goods from you, man. I have consider your stuff previous
to and you are simply too great. I really like what you've received here, really
like what you're saying and the best way in which you say it.
You're making it enjoyable and you still take care of to keep it sensible.
I can not wait to read much more from you. This is actually a terrific site.

Visit my webpage - Tableless - Código front-end confiável

صورة cnvgracie

Wow, that's what I was seeking for, what a data!
existing here at this weblog, thanks admin of this web site.

Take a look at my web-site; Women'S Cold Weather Boots Waterproof

صورة melindaodo

affiliate marketing amazon
networks may even take a reduce of your sales or charge fees too
make use of their community.

صورة gregnoack

If you're certainly not contributing good enough to satisfy the
optimum fight, you're missing outing on totally free money.

My site ... symptomaticgian86.yolasite.com (Tosha)

صورة jeremy3819

Below the slider you'll discover graphics as well as
web links for Acquire Linked", Provide Online", as well as Petition".

Have a look at my web blog ... painfulsinger5199.jimdo.com (Jeannine)

صورة ricktallis

There are dozens of applications and internet sites developed to locate you the best job, and also coming
from them our team have actually chosen our 16 favorites.

my blog post; unsightlyelecti92.snack.ws (Elwood)

صورة leonoraber

His granny in fact took him to a flight terminal accommodation for his birthday party one year so he might
see the planes property.

Review my web page - halfdesert7932.sosblogs.com (Domenic)

صورة waldodonat

Don't forget, you could additionally seek project postings on employer-specific employer websites if you
possess a firm (or firms) in mind.

Here is my web page :: purevolume.com - Chester
-

صورة lucianahod

I am sure this post has touched all the internet people, its really really nice paragraph on building up new weblog.

Have a look at my website; Bill

صورة christenap

Intensity, volume, and overall workload can easily be calculated and
monitored. At times, a field goal may be attempted
when a team needs to cover a lot of ground in one or two downs, and it seems unrealistic to continue holding possession of the ball.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Niosh),
began it's data collection in 1990 and released its findings in January, 2012.
The win totals for the Jets is currently listed at 8.

Also visit my web site: đời cầu thủ bóng đá (http://www.Izwc.com/space.php?uid=196975&do=blog&id=302430)

صورة felixtarde

When it is warm enough you can even wear them for a night out on the town. This maybe quite
expensive but if the person goes to a lot of events then it may work out a good idea to purchase one.
You will be ready for any occasion with these distinctive black and white borders
that can be dressed up or down for any DTP project.
Facing with so many stunning evening gowns, it's not difficult to find
your best one. You possibly can choose to be quirky, provocative along with whimsical plus ooze with feminine charm every last
turn. Kit discovers that Mercy secretly loves John but does not say
anything for the sake of her sister Judith. The elasticated waist gives you the space you need to feel comfortable.

My site; rehearsal dinner dress anthropologie coupon

صورة josefaagau

Thanks for ones marvelous posting! I truly enjoyed reading it, you will be a great author.I
will make sure to bookmark your blog and will often come back in the foreseeable future.
I want to encourage one to continue your great work, have a nice weekend!

my blog: pizza hut discount coupon

صورة jonahrhea

I am not sure where you're getting your info, but great topic.
I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more.
Thanks for wonderful info I was looking for this info for my mission.

My weblog ... Monty

صورة zaragoodis

May I simply just say what a relief to uncover somebody who
truly knows what they are discussing on the net. You actually realize how
to bring a problem to light and mame it important. A lot more people ought to read
this and understand this side of the story. I
was surprised you're not more popular since you surely have the gift.

My page; express oil change fuel system cleaning (Maribel)

صورة raphaelbut

And all I ask is a tall ship and a star to steer her by". CRT television sets in color were available but expensive to own. According to ancient tradition the bird must be chased away and those who heard his cry should be extremely cautious about their personal safety.

my web site :: vietnam travel

صورة princessba

Thanks very interesting blog!

Feel free to surf to my blog post: site straightforward

صورة janna90199

Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
I've been looking for a plug-in like this for
quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this.

Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your
blog and I look forward to your new updates.

My blog post: free instagram likes

صورة lashondare

The quality of the products has increased as well and so has the storage capacity
of computers and handheld devices. Prized in Asia as aquarium specimens, Asian arowanas are also notable for being endangered, listed on CITES
Appendix I. According to ancient tradition the bird must
be chased away and those who heard his cry should be extremely cautious
about their personal safety.

my site - vietnam tours company

صورة kentonl51

The Gemini man has a very real desire to find
out who you are, because the people born under this sign have a great sense of humanity and an instinct for what makes you tick.
) Most of us have an entire lifetime of negative beliefs, thoughts and attitudes that we carry around with us like
useless baggage that we've simply gotten used how to respond to i love you and don't even notice anymore.
Men really enjoy being with an interesting, intelligent,
funny woman.

صورة bonitaeich

Somebody essentially help to make seriously articles I would state.
That is the first time I frequented your web page and thus far?
I amazed with the research you made to create this particular post incredible.
Excellent task!

Feel free to surf to my web blog hyundai elantra

صورة jeremyhmz

Please let me know if you're looking for a article
writer for your weblog. You have some really good articles and I think I would be a good asset.
If you ever want to take some of the load off, I'd love to write some content for your blog in exchange for a link back to
mine. Please shoot me an email if interested. Many thanks!

Also visit my blog post: reviews on diabetes destroyer

صورة minnieatwe

Hello, I enjoy reading all of your post. I wanted to write a little comment to support you.

Also visit my blog - crazy bulk philippines (rizahan.com)

صورة wildabromb

I am regular reader, how are you everybody? This post posted at
this web page is genuinely good.

Also visit my blog post ... buy anabolic steroids Uk buy to let taxation

صورة marylinmor

Page two has more of the achievements in Just Cause 2,
including those earned by killing massive amounts of enemy soldiers
and those for doing so in creative ways.
The Queen of Blades was once known only as Sarah Kerrigan.
Does walking to the fridge, if I do it many times a day, count
as exercise. Now, I don't mean that we all
have a little coward inside us, though that's true as well.

On Sept 25, President Obama appeared on the The View where Whoopi asked him,
"How do we as Americans figure out that sometimes things we say have terrible consequences, as they did in Libya.

Also visit my website - sex

صورة muoidrury

It is no wonder that they have Koi ponds at their homes as often as we have dogs and cats
in our homes. Don't forget to ask if they take care of the excess dirt.
Capturing the waterfall video images are always
challenging as water flow is in rapid motion.

صورة myrtlefcw3

This is a proprietary blend of capsicum extract, black pepper,
and vitamin B3. In the case of weight reduction, capsicum is
a sizzling property because it places the metabolism into overdrive and causes the physique to burn calories 12 occasions sooner than regular.
It also has value as an appetite suppressant.

my web page - Dani

صورة philippbra

I'd like to find out more? I'd love to find out some additional information.

Review my page: legal steriods

صورة nanniew477

Tribulus Terrestris - additionally referred to as vine.
Ayervedic Healers being a natural performance-enhancer and testosterone booster employed
for ages has. Libido supplements that group in an entire selection of other natural
materials along with organic extracts are great to increase libido or sexdrive in males.
Ginseng muira pauma terrestris, jack that is extended, etc.,
are some of the herbs which might be used-to formulate such products.
These herbs have a lengthy record to be employed
as sexual stimuli. They raise blood circulation to the manhood but also promote testosterone production within your body.

visit us ===> testadrox

صورة selenelemo

Hey there! Would you mind if I share your blog with my twitter group?

There's a lot of folks that I think would really appreciate your content.
Please let me know. Cheers

My homepage run game without graphic card (Hester)

صورة declanhyne

You just need to create a free user account with the
wiki and enjoy your news on several topics like:. Caffeine
has been blamed for everything from high blood pressure to
cancer. We have been in the travel industry over 10 years online.

Feel free to visit my web page - BáO Online (Www.Doma-Kinozal.Ru)

صورة bobmcclint

Ecommerce has actually pplayed an important part in the on thhe internet buying as it has given the fundamental facilities of the purchasing to the people who can nott locate time as a
result of ther hectic regimen.

My homepage - e commerce jobs [65amps.net]

صورة michalemcl

"In a joint statement, Orlando Bloom and Miranda Kerr have announced that they have been amicably separated for the past few months. However, there is a second way that menus can work. Gollum never gives up his intention of eating Bilbo in the first and revised edition, so he remains true The Return of the King audiobook his slimy-skinny-bad-ass image.

Also visit my blog post :: The Way of Kings audiobook

صورة sangatb546

A new technology introduced by one of the biggest automobile companies, Volvo, will ensure that your car avoid accidents on the roads involving pedestrians.
Be smart and savvy when negotiating the interest rate for new cars and don't just
sign on the bottom line. You can visit Monaco Motors for your classic car's regular check-up and you can also do your own daily car care so your
vintage car will look as new and luxurious as ever.

Feel free to surf to my web-site; Showreel

صورة ashleytick

Take your time and find the right method that works for you.
This progress in design concept is changing
how we treat our living spaces. Then find some woodworking plans and patterns for a
nice little wooden bridge for over your pond and you are done.

my website ... waterfalls wallpaper

صورة inslashawn

Oɦ my goodness! Amazing article dude! Ӎany thanks, Howevᥱr I
am experiencing troubles աith yоur RSS. І
ⅾon't know the reason why I cɑn't join it. Is thᥱre anybody getting
simіlar RSS proЬlems? Anyοne that knowѕ tһe answer can you kindly respond?

Tһanx!!

Feel free to visit my web-site :: 2017 toyota 4runner reviews

صورة tawannahor

The only records of the trial say nothing about what Ann did
to deserve execution. The Arizona law could produce more headaches then warranted.
Belonging to one such group, Siavash Kasrai had
to flee the country and wrote The Scarlet Stone years
later during his time in exile.

Look at my web page: The Scarlet Letter audiobook free

صورة oliverstor

I know this if off topic but I'm looking into starting my own blog
and was curious what all is needed to get set up? I'm assuming having
a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny?
I'm not very web smart so I'm not 100% certain. Any recommendations or advice would
be greatly appreciated. Many thanks

Stop by my web page; t bal 75 crazy bulk (afizikamindenkie.kfki.hu)

صورة ihlflorenc

Attractive paгt of content. Ι simply stumbled սpon your blog ɑnd іn accession capital tߋ claim that I
acquire in fаct loved account ʏour blog posts. Any wаy Ӏ will be subscribing tօ
youг augment օr even I achievement you access ϲonstantly fast.

Heге is my page http://www.bmbs168.com

صورة johnettem9

Both rims offer tours on Eco - Star choppers, so try
to snag a seat on one of them for the best flight possible.
For those that want to blow their mind on chilies, every order includes a spoonful
of hot red chili paste. Off the Port Campbell National Park's shores, you can see a number of
the famous Great Ocean Road limestone formations named The Twelve
Apostles.

my homepage: phu quoc travel (http://Seamusic.cn/member.asp?action=view&memName=DarellLlewellyn)

صورة shantellpa

If you're one of the minority who would not drop a few pounds whilst utilizing phenq reviews, you possibly can make the most of the 60
day refund coverage that the manufacturers promote.

صورة xavierskal

In casе уoս like providing уoᥙr viewpoint ɑnd
haᴠe ɑ comρuter, yⲟu mɑʏ wаnt to
trу doig web surveys fгom home while tгying new products, tо mаke a smɑll moгe money.

Нere iѕ mу site :: http://idehen.net/HtmlPivotViewer/?url=http://topsurveychoice.com/

صورة drosuzanne

I read this post completely on the topic of the difference of most recent and previous technologies, it's amazing article.

Feel free to surf to my page; agen bola online

صورة nsfwilbur

The town centre is 15 minutes off the Pacific Highway, so it's a short
detour before hitting the road again. The beach is very clean and aside from the occasional drift woods
and coconut husks lying around, it is spotless. A certain standard of hospitality and
service can be expected without having to expect the
unexpected.

Also visit my web blog: aquarena travel

صورة nelson37t9

We absolutely love your blog and find almost all of your post's to be what
precisely I'm looking for. Does one offer guest writers to write content in your case?
I wouldn't mind creating a post or elaborating on most of the subjects you
write related to here. Again, awesome blog!
http://emap.pw/a/4/euro.html

Here is my web blog ... euro 2016

صورة claritahut

Take your time and find the right method that works for you.

This progress in design concept is changing how we treat our living spaces.
However, a twenty dollar bill and a handshake with the conductor found me in a compartment by myself, and the regular beat of the tracks combined with the slow rocking of the steam-powered train, and I was off to sleep in a flash.

Here is my blog; waterfall video

صورة rethaeatoc

The hoot of an owl is regarded as a bad omen announcing death or illness.

She also took pictures of Queen Elizabeth II for the Walt Disney
Company, Demi Moore for Rolling Stone magazine, and many other famous photographs.

According to ancient tradition the bird must be chased away and those who heard his cry
should be extremely cautious about their personal safety.

My web site - vietnam travel

صورة adamjym720

You are, in essence, forced to make a choice between permitting Squarespace to use the first one hundred sixy or so charactgers
from the submit being routinely orr populating an excerpt field, the content matedrial of which is then displyed
on the blog itself.

Also visit my homepage :: shopify login api

صورة kellyebros

However, these gardens will take a lot more time and energy to create than koi waterfalls east tn.
The bacteria e-coli are mostly accountable for this.
When first planning to learn how to build a waterfall and
pond, there are two very important structures that you need to focus on first: the
part of the pond where the water falls and the structure from which the water falls
from.

الصفحات