العقل والنقل ..أيهما المقدم؟

صورة رائد السمهوري

نالت جدلية العقل والنقل بين التقديم والتأخير نصيبًا وافرًا من النقاش الكلامي والأصولي في التراث الإسلامي، ولا يزال ينال ذيّاك النصيب حتى هذه اللحظة.

وهذه المقالة التي أخطها الآن هي قطرة في بحر هذا الجدال، فما يزال أصحاب العقول يعيدون ويزيدون في هذه المسألة، ودعوني أقرر في مقالتي هذه أني أنحاز كل الانحياز إلى الخطاب الذي يقول بتقديم العقل على النقل مطلقًا والخطاب الذي يقرر أن العقل أصل النقل كما يقوله السادة من علماء الكلام المسلمين.

ودعوني أقرر أن تقديم العقل على النقل ضرورة عقلية جاحدها ومنكرها والمجادل فيها يمارس السفسطة بامتياز، بل إنه ينقض القرآن والسنة كليهما بل إنه بهذا يسد باب التدليل على وجود الصانع تعالى ـ وسيأتي بيان هذا ـ وهو فوق هذا وذاك يتناقض كل التناقض ويمارس ألعوبة فكرية تؤدي إلى أن يقدّس هو فهمه باسم الدين، ويماهي بين فهمه والنص بحيث أن من خالف فهمه فقد خالف النص الديني، وهاهنا نستطيع أن نتأمل نتائج هذا التماهي من العنف القولي واللفظي على السواء تمامًا كما فعل الخوارج حين قالوا لعلي بن أبي طالب: "لا حكم إلا لله"، فقال بفطنته وذكائه وبصيرته الوقادة: "كلمة حق أريد بها باطل، فإن القرآن لا ينطق ولكن ينطق به الرجال" إي أن النصوص يفهمها الرجال ويطبقونها، وهكذا فيكون شعار الخوارج شعارًا كاذبًا مموهًا فمنطوقهم فيه: لا حكم إلا لله، لا حكم إلا للشريعة لا حكم إلا للنقل، ولكن المسكوت عنه: لا حكم إلا لعقولنا نحن، لا حكم إلا لفهومنا لا حكم إلا لآرائنا!

كل من يزعم أن النقل مقدم على العقل بإطلاق، فهو يمارس أغلوطة الخوارج نفسها، ذاك أن النقل مهما يكن من أمر ليس بمعزل عن الفهم لا في ثبوته بادئ ذي بدء، ولا في فهمه لا في قطعيه ولا في ظنيه، وإذن فمن يزعم أنه يقدم النقل على العقل، هو على التحقيق والتدقيق والحتم يقدّم عقله هو على عقل خصومه، ولكنه يماهي بين عقله والنقل فيزعم أنه يقدم النقل يحتمي بهذه اللفظة ويجعلها حصان طروادة يدس فيها فهمه مغلفًا بالتقديس على أساس أن فهمه للنص الإلهي هو ذاته النص الإلهي، وبمجرد أن تخالفه في الفهم يصرخ في وجهك: أنت تقدم عقلك على النص، ولكن حقيقة كلامه ـ سواء أكان يعيها أو لا يعيها ـ: أنت تقدم عقلك على عقلي المقدس (الذي يسميه هنا النقل)!

إن العقل مقدم على النقل مطلقًا! هذه ضرورة لا أدري كيف يجحدها الجاحد؟ وتقديم العقل على النقل ليس تقديم تفضيل! بل تقديم ترتيب؛ لأن التفضيل لا محل له هنا؛ فالنص القرآني قائم ومؤسس على العقل وليس هو مؤسِّسًا للعقل، فاللغة عقل منطوق، إنها بيان للأفكار، وهذا هو النص القرآني، إنه لغة "بشرية" بألفاظ يعقل العرب معانيها قبل ورود النص القرآني، وهي تعبر عن معقولات يفهمها المتلقي ويدرك اتساقها أو تناقضها، ويستطيع أن يحكم عليها، ولهذا تحدى القرآن تحديًا واضحًا حين قال:{ولو كان من عند غير الله لوجدوا فيه اختلافًا كثيرًا}.

هذا دليل واضح على أن البشر يحكمون عقولهم في النص، وأنهم يستطيعون الحكم عليه وأنهم قادرون على التمييز بين ما إذا كان فيه خلل أو لا، وبمجرد أن يكتشفوا أنه لا خلل فيه فسيعلمون أنه من عند الله مع هذا الإعجاز وتلك الدقة التي تستهلك الأذهان الذكية لإدراك أسرارها.

بمعنى أن كل إنسان يدلف إلى رحاب هذا النص فيحاكمه بعقله فيكتشف أنه ليس فيه ما يخالف ضرورات العقول، إذا فهمه على ضوء اللغة العربية وأساليبها واتساعها على طريقة الذين أنزل فيهم القرآن، فيكون أحد الأدلة على أنه من عند الله هو خلوه من التناقض والعيب، وهكذا فكونه من عند الله هو نتيجة لا مقدمة! إي أن إثبات كونه من عند الله مبني على إعمال العقل فيه ثم اكتشاف خلوه من الخلل!

وبهذه الصورة يكون العقل حاكمًا على النص! حاكمًا عليه يقرر أنه من عند الله.

إن الله تعالى يقول:{إن الله يأمر بالعدل والإحسان وإيتاء ذي القربي وينهى عن الفحشاء والمنكر والبغي} ..

ماذا لو كانت هذه الآية على هذا النحو:{إن الله ينهى عن العدل والإحسان وإيتاء ذي القربى، ويأمر بالفحشاء والمنكر والبغي ..}.

هل سيتردد العاقل في أن يحكم أنه حينئذ كلام شيطاني لا رحماني؟!

وأنه حديث مفترى؟ وأن يستحيل أن يصدر من الله تعالى؟!

لكن أنى له أن يحكم أنه ليس من الله تعالى؟! أليس هذا مبنيًا على علمه بالله قبل النص، لأنه سيقرؤه وهو يعلم ما يليق بالله أو ما لا يليق؟ فيعلم أن الله يستحيل أن يأمر بالفحشاء والمنكر؟ ويستحيل أن يأمر بالظلم؟

وإذن فأنى له أن يعلم القائل قبل أن يعلم القول؟! وعلى أساس علمه بالقائل يحكم على القول أيليق بالقائل أم لا يليق؟!

لا سبيل إلى هذا إلا العقل! العقل هو دليلنا على وجودنا (فعلمنا بوجودنا هو حالة عقلية)، وهو دليلنا على وجود الأشياء (وعلمنا بهذا هو حالة عقلية)، وهو دليلنا على وجود محدِث هذه الأشياء (وعلمنا بهذا أيضًا هو حالة عقلية).

العقل أول الأدلة .. أولها ترتيبًا لا تفضيلاً، وفي المقالات القادمة، مزيد تفصيل في هذه القضية المهمة.

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